Auraicept na n-éces‘The scholars'/poets' primer’

  • Old Irish, Middle Irish
  • prose
  • Irish legendary history, Irish texts on language and literature
A grammar, or primer, of Old Irish
Canonical part
The so-called ‘canonical part’ of the Auraicept does not survive as an independent text in the manuscripts.
Short recension
Intermediate recension
Long recension
  • Old Irish Middle Irish
The core of the text has been dated to “a fairly early stage of the Old Irish period” (Ahlqvist).(1)n. 1 Anders Ahlqvist, The early Irish linguist: an edition of the canonical part of the Auraicept na n-éces (1983): 47–48.
prose (primary)
verse (secondary)
Textual relationships


Irish legendary history Irish texts on language and literature



Primary sources Text editions and/or modern translations – in whole or in part – along with publications containing additions and corrections, if known. Diplomatic editions, facsimiles and digital image reproductions of the manuscripts are not always listed here but may be found in entries for the relevant manuscripts. For historical purposes, early editions, transcriptions and translations are not excluded, even if their reliability does not meet modern standards.

[ed.] [tr.] Calder, George [ed. and tr.], Auraicept na n-Éces: The scholars’ primer, being the texts of the Ogham tract from the Book of Ballymote and the Yellow book of Lecan, and the text of the Trefhocul from the Book of Leinster, Edinburgh: John Grant, 1917.
CELT – text and introduction: <link> Internet Archive: <link> Septentrionalia.net: <link>
2–169 (text and translation of the short recension); 171–257 (text of the longer recension); 258–269 (Trefhocul)
[ed.] [tr.] Ahlqvist, Anders [ed. and tr.], The early Irish linguist: an edition of the canonical part of the Auraicept na n-éces, Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum 73, Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 1983.
An edition of the canonical part of the Auraicept

Secondary sources (select)

Acken, James, Structure and interpretation in the Auraicept na nÉces, Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2008.
Acken, James, “Lexical specificity in the Auraicept na nÉces”, in: Sheehan, Sarah, Joanne Findon, and Westley Follett (eds.), Gablánach in scélaigecht: Celtic studies in honour of Ann Dooley, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2013. 116–130.
Ahlqvist, Anders, “An Irish text on the letters of the alphabet”, in: Simon-Vandenbergen, A. M. [ed.], Studies in honour of René Derolez, Ghent: Ghent University, 1987. 3–16.
Ahlqvist, Anders, “Latin grammar and native learning”, in: Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, Liam Breatnach, and Kim R. McCone (eds.), Sages, saints and storytellers: Celtic studies in honour of Professor James Carney, Maynooth Monographs 2, Maynooth: An Sagart, 1989. 1–6.
Burnyeat, Abigail, “The early Irish grammaticus?”, Aiste 1 (2007): 181–217.
Hofman, Rijcklof, and Bernadette Smelik, “An unnoticed copy of the Auraicept na n-Éces in MS TCD H.2.17”, in: Smelik, Bernadette, Rijcklof Hofman, Camiel Hamans, and David Cram (eds.), A companion in linguistics: a Festschrift for Anders Ahlqvist on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, Nijmegen: Stichting Uitgeverij de Keltische Draak, 2005. 63–65.
Hofman, Rijcklof, “Latin grammars and the structure of the vernacular Old Irish Auraicept na nÉces”, in: Garrison, Mary, Arpad P. Orbán, and Marco Mostert (eds.), Spoken and written language: relations between Latin and the vernacular languages in the earlier Middle Ages, Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 24, Turnhout: Brepols, 2013. 185–198.
McLaughlin, Roisin, “Fénius Farsaid and the alphabets”, Ériu 59 (2009): 1–24.  
This paper examines evidence for the existence of an alternative tradition to that found in Auraicept na nÉces concerning the role played by Fénius Farsaid in the invention of the alphabet of Irish and those of the three sacred languages—Hebrew, Greek and Latin. The sources to be considered are Auraicept na nÉces, In Lebor Ollaman, a Middle Irish text in Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Laud 610, glosses on the copy of Auraicept na nÉces in TCD MS E 3.3 (1432) and the Etymologiae of Isidore of Seville.
Poppe, Erich, “Latinate terminology in Auraicept na nÉces”, in: Cram, David, Andrew Linn, and Elke Nowak (eds), History of linguistics 1996: selected papers from the Seventh International Conference on the History of the Language Sciences, Oxford, 12–17 September 1996, vol. 1: Traditions in linguistics worldwide., Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1999. 191–201.
Thurneysen, Rudolf, “Auraicept na n-éces”, Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 17 (1928): 277–303.

External links

CODECS: Calder's edition in parallel. Transcribed and tabulated by Rijcklof Hofman
Dennis Groenewegen
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