Cyfraith Hywel ‘Law of Hywel (Dda)’

  • Middle Welsh, Latin
  • Medieval Welsh law

Some 40 manuscripts have come down containing different redactions of the material, which scholarship has traditionally assigned to four or five broad groups: the Iorwerth redaction, Cyfnerth redaction, the Latin redactions, the Blegywryd redaction and a further, miscellaneous group (follow the links for manuscript witnesses).

  • Middle Welsh Latin language
  • Welsh and Latin


Medieval Welsh law


Primary sources Text editions and/or modern translations – in whole or in part – along with publications containing additions and corrections, if known. Diplomatic editions, facsimiles and digital image reproductions of the manuscripts are not always listed here but may be found in entries for the relevant manuscripts. For historical purposes, early editions, transcriptions and translations are not excluded, even if their reliability does not meet modern standards.

[ed.] Owen, Aneurin [ed.], Ancient laws and institutions of Wales, 2 vols, London: Commissioners on the Public Records of the Kingdom, 1841.
[ed.] .
[tr.] Jenkins, Dafydd [tr.], The law of Hywel Dda: law texts from medieval Wales, The Welsh Classics 2, Llandysul, Dyfed: Gomer Press, 1986.

Secondary sources (select)

Roberts, Sara Elin [project leader], and Bryn Jones [research assistant], Cyfraith Hywel, Online. URL: <http://cyfraith-hywel.org.uk>.
Charles-Edwards, T. M., The Welsh laws, Writers of Wales, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1989.
Charles-Edwards, T. M., Morfydd E. Owen, and Paul Russell (eds.), The Welsh king and his court, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000.
Dennis Groenewegen
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