- fl 9th century
- Irish people in continental Europe, scribes, scholars
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See more AldelmusAldelmus (s. ix) – scholar known from an attribution to a table of computus, where he is called a brother of John Scottus Eriugena.
See more Israel the GrammarianIsrael the Grammarian (fl. c.900-c.970) – Tenth-century teacher, scholar and poet. He had been a student of John Scottus Eriugena, spent time at the court of King Æthelstan, found a new patron in Rotbert, archbishop of Trier, and became tutor to Bruno, brother of Otto I and later archbishop of Cologne. Breton, Welsh and Irish origins have been variously ascribed to him, with the Breton hypothesis currently finding most favour in scholarship.
At the outset the role of man seems to be conditioned by nature's dynamic development through the Neoplatonic stages of procession and return. As man is located at the turning- point between procession and return, he is not only governed by nature's unfolding, but can also exercise control over it. Thus it is shown that man should be seen as much more independent than the cosmological structure of Eriugena's philosophy of nature seems to indicate.The study of Eriugena's anthropology urges a re-evaluation of the position of man in the early medieval period. Although man characteristically possesses a sinful, created state, Eriugena shows that this does not prevent him from entertaining a free and direct relationship with God and the surrounding universe. In dealing with the problem of human sin, Eriugena brings out Christ’s saving role, but it seems counterbalanced by man’s intrinsic potential as the "divine image" to rehabilitate himself. In this respect Eriugena’s flexible method of reasoning – his handling of negative theology, theophany and allegorical exegesis – serves as a remarkable example of human independence in what has so often been portrayed as the "static" early-medieval world.