Jones (Bob Morris)
- s. xx / s. xxi
This study shows that adjectives in Welsh can be modified by various phrases in pre-adjectival position, post-adjectival position, and in a more complex configuration in which a modifying expression precedes a prepositional phrase which contains the modified adjective. Welsh is similar in some respects to other languages, but it is distinctive in the use of plain adjectives and not de-adjectival adverbs, a relatively extensive use of post-modification, and the very distinctive use of a prepositional configuration. Formal analyses, using X-bar configurations, consider whether modified adjectival phrases can be described as Degree Phrases or Adjective Phrases, and whether the modifiers are heads, specifiers, or adjuncts. The different syntax of the prepositional configuration is discussed separately. The analysis also considers multiple modification, and various constraints.
This study examines a distinctive construction in Welsh which provides interesting data for discussing the role of the core and the periphery (Chomsky 1981). Most work on syntax focuses on the core but Culicover (1999) and Culicover and Jackendoff (1999) have promoted interest in the periphery, drawing attention to both its size and its importance. For the purposes of this study, an X-bar approach will be adopted for the formalization of core rules. Data which cannot be accounted for within these rules will be regarded as non-canonical. The Welsh construction which is examined in this study raises problems of phrase structure analysis. There are distributional reasons for considering it to be an AP, but it does not have the canonical internal syntax of an AP. The possibility therefore arises that we must establish non-canonical rules to account for this construction. We shall conclude that we have a non-canonical clause which has the distribution of an AP.
The primary aim of this study is to explore the distinctive syntax of a clause in contemporary informal Welsh which contains the lexeme piau 'own, belong'. The study shows that piau clauses have idiosyncratic properties which are atypical of the core grammar of Welsh, and raises issues as to how syntactic models which are based on regular linguistic constructions can cope with irregular but commonly occurring constructions. Arising out of this, the study has a secondary aim, namely, to make these data available as a contribution to the debate, which is found in Culicover (1999) and Culicover and Jackendoff (1999), on the extent to which Chomsky's (1981) distinction between core and peripheral grammar can be applied.
This study analyses the use of forms of the present tense of bod 'be' in informal spoken Welsh. Extensive attention has been given to the variant forms of the third persons (mae, maen, ydy, ydyn, sydd, oes). There are other variant forms of all the persons of bod 'be' which are based on phonological contraction, giving the contrast of full and contracted forms (e.g. ydy versus dy). These variants have received much less attention. This study shows that phonology alone cannot account for the choice of a full or contracted form. Three major findings emerge. One is that their use is licensed by features of negation and mood. Another is that the full forms have a more restricted distribution than the contracted forms. The third finding is that there are differences in the use of full and contracted forms in northern and southern dialects.
page name: Id:Jones (Bob Morris)
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