Virgilius Maro Grammaticus
  • fl. c. 7th century
Scholar and author of two Latin grammatical treatises; often identified as an Irishman
See also references for related subjects.
Herren, Michael W., “Comedy, irony, and philosophy in late antique prosimetra: Menippean satire from the fifth to the eighth century”, The Journal of Medieval Latin 27 (2017): 241–275.  
The author examines in chronological order the main examples of Latin works generally claimed to be Menippean satires from Roman times (by Varro, Seneca, Petronius) to the Cosmography of Aethicus Ister, written just before the middle of the eighth century C.E. He argues that the satires composed from the end of the fifth century to the middle of the eighth (by Martianus Capella, Ennodius, Boethius, Fulgentius, Virgilius Maro Grammaticus, and ps. Jerome) constitute a separate branch of the tradition. These works cohere in their attachment to an encyclopedic, or generally didactic, intent, the use of fabula or allegory, and a commitment to the anagogic or ennobling function of literature, all the while maintaining many of the classical features of the genre - the prosimetrical form, dialogic structure, comedy, irony, and engagement with philosophy. The author also debates with modern critics such as Mikhail Bakhtin and Northrop Frye and their endeavour to establish a definition of Menippean that is valid for all periods. It is argued that Latin (both Roman and late late antique) examples alone preserve the original form derived from Menippus that requires the mixture of prose and poetry, i.e. the prosimetrum. The prosimetrum is not merely formal, but operates in service to the dialectic inherent in the genre. The author argues that with the sundering of form from mode (the topoi and literary techniques identified in the genre) that Menippean satire essentially died and had to be reinvented.
Harvey, Anthony, “Linguistic method in his literary madness? The word-coinings of Virgilius Marco Grammaticus”, in: Roma, Elisa, and David Stifter [eds], Linguistic and philological studies in Early Irish, Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2014. 79–104.
Herren, Michael W., “Cicero redivivus apud scurras: some early medieval treatments of the great orator”, in: Deusen, Nancy (ed.), Cicero refused to die: Ciceronian influence through the centuries, Presenting the Past 4, Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2013. 1–4.  
What this chapter offers on the life and doings of Cicero is mostly skurril, but one example does verge upon the scurrilous. Early medieval writers and even later ones read many of the authors of Latin antiquity without having an inkling of their lifetime or careers. An example presented in the chapter is not only scurrilous but also shocking. It comes from a collection of Priscian glosses found in a Freising manuscript of the ninth century. The last example involves a more refined treatment of Cicero by an author who may be regarded as exemplifying the older notion of a scurra, namely, "a fashionable city idler." It refers to Virgil the Grammarian, a refined Irish gentleman of the 7th century, whose writings combine the serious treatment of grammar with parody, verbal wit, and much that is perplexing.
Naismith, Rory, “Antiquity, authority, and religion in the Epitomae and Epistolae of Virgilius Maro Grammaticus”, Peritia 20 (2008): 59–85.  
Virgilius Maro Grammaticus’s origins and date have often been discussed: the setting he imagined for his works has not. How Virgilius imagined himself and his ‘authorities’ reveals a fascinating mélange of names, characters, and religious ideas plucked from history, all brought together to emphasise the antiquity and variety within the Latin language. Modelled on the atmosphere of familiar Late Antique and early medieval grammars, Virgilius’s setting was probably created to allow veiled comment on the future of Latin in changing intellectual circumstances. There is considerable manuscript and citation evidence that the name Virgilius Maro Grammaticus was not used in the medieval period, and the Epitomae and Epistolae are ascribed only to Virgilius Maro. The ambiguity this name created was strengthened by the presence of Aeneas and other classical-sounding authorities, and created much confusion amongst medieval readers and copyists trying to distinguish the grammarian from the poet.
(source: Brepols)
Bracken, Damian, “Virgil the Grammarian and Bede: a preliminary study”, Anglo-Saxon England 35 (2006): 7–21.  
The chapters in Bede's De temporum ratione begin with an etymology for the name of the subject to be examined. Sources and analogues for some have not hitherto been identified. This article shows that some of these etymologies of words for the divisions of time come ultimately, though perhaps not directly, from bk XI of Virgil the Grammarian's Epitomae. These accounts of the origins of calendrical and cosmological terms wound their way through early western computistical works and eventually into Bede's De temporum ratione. The article identifies examples of Virgil's influence on anonymous early medieval biblical commentaries and discusses their significance as pointers towards their place of composition.
Löfstedt, Bengt, Virgilius Maro Grammaticus: opera omnia, Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana, Munich, Leipzig: K. G. Saur, 2003. xviii + 266 pp.
Bracken, Damian, “Virgilius Grammaticus and the earliest Hiberno-Latin literature”, in: Richter, Michael, and Jean-Michel Picard (eds.), Ogma: essays in Celtic studies in honour of Próinséas Ní Chatháin, Dublin: Four Courts, 2002. 251–261.
Howlett, David, “Seven studies in seventh-century texts”, Peritia 10 (1996): 1–70.  
The following works are examined here: Versus de annis a principio [beg. Deus a quo facta fuit]; Ailerán’s Interpretatio mystica and Canon euangeliorum; three verse prayers from the Book of Cerne; seven works by and for Cummianus Longus (†662), including Celebra Iuda, which is here edited; three works by Virgilius Maro Grammaticus; the Oratio Gildae and a verse paraphrase of Carmen paschale, taken as examples of Hiberno-Latin hendecasyllables; and the Lorica of Laidcenn mac Baíth (†661), for which a date of AD 659 is suggested. On the basis of these texts, two inferences may be made of Irish culture of the period: the intellectual agility and acuity exhibited in this precisely constructed prose and verse was not the achievement of a few isolated clerics; and the title sapiens was not given lightly or loosely by the monastic annalists.
Law, Vivien, Wisdom, authority and grammar in the seventh century: decoding Virgilius Maro Grammaticus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 170 pp.  

Contents: Introduction; 1. The outer layers: parody and word-play; 2. The wisdom tradition; 3. Avarice and the four keys to wisdom; 4. The multifarious nature of wisdom; 5. Heretical knowledge? The constitution of man; 6. The Epistolae: Virgilius' Retractatio?; 7. Concealment of mysteries: the techniques of secrecy; 8. Virgilius and the seventh century; 9. Conclusion; Appendices; Notes; Works cited; Index.

Cizek, Alexandru, “Virgile le grammairien: un auteur hiberno-aquitain?”, in: Picard, Jean-Michel, Aquitaine and Ireland in the Middle Ages, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1995. 127–136.
Herren, Michael, “Virgil the Grammarian: a Spanish Jew in Ireland?”, Peritia 9 (1995): 51–71.
Law, Vivien, “Fragments from the lost portions of the Epitomae of Virgilius Maro Grammaticus”, Cambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 21 (Summer, 1991): 113–125.
Law, Vivien A., “Learning to read with the oculi mentis: Virgilius Maro Grammaticus”, Literature and Theology: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory, Criticism and Culture 3 (1989): 159–172.
Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí, “The date, provenance, and earliest use of the works of Virgilius Maro Grammaticus”, in: Bernt, Günter, Fidel Rädle, and Gabriel Silagi (eds), Tradition und Wertung: Festschrift für Franz Brunhölzl zum 65. Geburtstag, Sigmaringen: Jan Thorbecke, 1989. 13–22.
Law, Vivien, The Insular Latin grammarians, Studies in Celtic History 3, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1982.
Löfstedt, Bengt, and B. McMenomy [appendix], “Miscellanea grammatica: 1. Fragmente des Virgilius Maro grammaticus; 2. Zum grammatiker Terrentius; 3. Zur grammatischen Schwindelliteratur; Appendix”, Rivista di cultura classica e medioevale 23 (1981): 159–164, 165–168 (appendix).
Herren, Michael, “Some new light on the life of Virgilius Maro Grammaticus”, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 79 C (1979): 27–71.
Polara, Giovanni, and Luciano Caruso, Virgilio Marone Grammatico: Epitomi ed Epistole, Naples: Liguori, 1979.  
Critical edition and translation (into Italian), with introduction and commentary
Tardi, Dominique, “Les epitomae de Virgile de Toulouse”, Paris, Thèse complémentaire: Boivin; Université de Paris, Faculté de lettres, 1928.
Manitius, Max, Geschichte der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, 3 vols, vol. 1: Von Justinian bis zur Mitte des zehnten Jahrhunderts, Munich: Beck, 1911. <link>
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