Bibliography

Matthew
Hammond
s. xx / s. xxi

8 publications between 2009 and ? indexed
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Websites

Taylor, Alice [princip. invest.], and Matthew Hammond [co-invest.], The people of medieval Scotland 1093–1371, Online: King's College, London; University of Glasgow; University of Edinburgh. URL: <https://www.poms.ac.uk>. 
abstract:
The database contains all information that can be assembled about every individual involved in actions in Scotland or relating to Scotland in documents written between the death of Malcolm III on 13 November 1093 and Robert I's parliament at Cambuskenneth on 6 November 1314. The bounds of the kingdom of the Scots changed during this period; for the sake of consistency, the database covers all the territory that had become part of Scotland by the death of Alexander III. (This means that the Isle of Man and Berwick are included, but Orkney and Shetland are not.) Also, the database is not simply a list of everyone who is ever mentioned. It is designed to reflect the interactions and relationships between people as this is represented in the documents.
abstract:
The database contains all information that can be assembled about every individual involved in actions in Scotland or relating to Scotland in documents written between the death of Malcolm III on 13 November 1093 and Robert I's parliament at Cambuskenneth on 6 November 1314. The bounds of the kingdom of the Scots changed during this period; for the sake of consistency, the database covers all the territory that had become part of Scotland by the death of Alexander III. (This means that the Isle of Man and Berwick are included, but Orkney and Shetland are not.) Also, the database is not simply a list of everyone who is ever mentioned. It is designed to reflect the interactions and relationships between people as this is represented in the documents.
Broun, Dauvit [princip. invest.], Matthew Hammond, Roibeard Ó Maolalaigh, John Bradley, and David Carpenter, The paradox of medieval Scotland 1093–1286: social relationships and identities before the Wars of Independence, Online: King's College, London; University of Edinburgh; University of Glasgow. URL: <https://paradox.poms.ac.uk>. 
abstract:

The period between 1093 and 1286 laid the foundations for modern Scotland. At its start, the king of Scots ruled no more than a small east coast realm between Lothian and Moray. At its end, his authority extended over the whole area of modern Scotland apart from the Northern Isles. During the same period, Scotland's society and culture was transformed by the king implanting a new nobility of Anglo-Norman origin and establishing English influenced structures of law and government. Rees Davies observed of Scotland that 'paradoxically, the most extensively English-settled and Anglicised part of the British Isles was the country which retained its political independence' (The First English Empire, 170). The paradox could go deeper. Is it a coincidence that it was only in the thirteenth century, when Anglicisation became dominant in the lowlands, that the kingdom of the Scots ceased to be regarded by its inhabitants as a realm of many regions and began to be thought of as a single country and people? In one sense the kingdom was becoming more self-consciously Scottish; and yet its history in this period is typically seen in terms of native distinctiveness being eroded by the influx of English immigration, social institutions and culture. But, should this be seen primarily in British terms? How does this transformation relate to wider patterns of social and cultural homogenisation that have been identified in this period, embracing French-speaking elites, Flemish as well as English traders, and the religious life and institutions of Latin Christendom?

This project was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council from 2007 until 2010 and combining members of the Universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh and King's College London to investigate how a recognisably modern Scottish identity was formed during the period 1093-1286. Drawing on over 6000 contemporary charters, it constructed a unique data-base which provided biographical information about all known people in Scotland between 1093 and 1286. This has now been updated to 1314 as part of the Breaking of Britain project. This enlarged database is freely available to all on the 'Database' tab above.

abstract:

The period between 1093 and 1286 laid the foundations for modern Scotland. At its start, the king of Scots ruled no more than a small east coast realm between Lothian and Moray. At its end, his authority extended over the whole area of modern Scotland apart from the Northern Isles. During the same period, Scotland's society and culture was transformed by the king implanting a new nobility of Anglo-Norman origin and establishing English influenced structures of law and government. Rees Davies observed of Scotland that 'paradoxically, the most extensively English-settled and Anglicised part of the British Isles was the country which retained its political independence' (The First English Empire, 170). The paradox could go deeper. Is it a coincidence that it was only in the thirteenth century, when Anglicisation became dominant in the lowlands, that the kingdom of the Scots ceased to be regarded by its inhabitants as a realm of many regions and began to be thought of as a single country and people? In one sense the kingdom was becoming more self-consciously Scottish; and yet its history in this period is typically seen in terms of native distinctiveness being eroded by the influx of English immigration, social institutions and culture. But, should this be seen primarily in British terms? How does this transformation relate to wider patterns of social and cultural homogenisation that have been identified in this period, embracing French-speaking elites, Flemish as well as English traders, and the religious life and institutions of Latin Christendom?

This project was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council from 2007 until 2010 and combining members of the Universities of Glasgow, Edinburgh and King's College London to investigate how a recognisably modern Scottish identity was formed during the period 1093-1286. Drawing on over 6000 contemporary charters, it constructed a unique data-base which provided biographical information about all known people in Scotland between 1093 and 1286. This has now been updated to 1314 as part of the Breaking of Britain project. This enlarged database is freely available to all on the 'Database' tab above.

Works edited

Hammond, Matthew (ed.), Personal names and naming practices in medieval Scotland, Studies in Celtic History, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2019.  
abstract:
Personal names can provide a rich and often overlooked window into medieval society, and Scotland's diversity of languages over the course of the Middle Ages makes it an ideal case study. This book offers a range of new methodological approaches to anthroponymy, covering Gaelic, Scandinavian and other Germanic names, as well as names drawn from the Bible, the saints, and secular literature. Individual case studies include a comparison of naming in early medieval Scottish and Irish chronicles; an authoritative taxonomy of Gaelic names drawn from twelfth and thirteenth-century charters; a revolutionary new analysis of the emergence of surnames in Ireland, with implications for Scottish history; a complete linguistic discussion of the masculine Germanic names in the 1296 Ragman Roll; a detailed local case study of saints. names in Argyll which bears on place-names as well; and an examination of the adoption of Hebrew Old Testament names in central medieval Scotland.
abstract:
Personal names can provide a rich and often overlooked window into medieval society, and Scotland's diversity of languages over the course of the Middle Ages makes it an ideal case study. This book offers a range of new methodological approaches to anthroponymy, covering Gaelic, Scandinavian and other Germanic names, as well as names drawn from the Bible, the saints, and secular literature. Individual case studies include a comparison of naming in early medieval Scottish and Irish chronicles; an authoritative taxonomy of Gaelic names drawn from twelfth and thirteenth-century charters; a revolutionary new analysis of the emergence of surnames in Ireland, with implications for Scottish history; a complete linguistic discussion of the masculine Germanic names in the 1296 Ragman Roll; a detailed local case study of saints. names in Argyll which bears on place-names as well; and an examination of the adoption of Hebrew Old Testament names in central medieval Scotland.
Hammond, Matthew (ed.), New perspectives on medieval Scotland, 1093–1286, Studies in Celtic History 32, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2013.  
abstract:
The years between the deaths of King Mael Coluim and Queen Margaret in 1093 and King Alexander III in 1286 witnessed the formation of a kingdom resembling the Scotland we know today, which was a full member of the European club of monarchies; the period is also marked by an explosion in the production of documents.
This volume includes a range of new studies casting fresh light on the institutions and people of the Scottish kingdom, especially in the thirteenth century. New perspectives are offered on topics as diverse as the limited reach of Scottish royal administration and justice, the ties that bound the unfree to their lords, the extent of a political community in the time of King Alexander II, a view of Europeanization from the spread of a common material culture, the role of a major Cistercian monastery in the kingdom and the broader world, and the idea of the neighbourhood in Scots law. There are also chapters on the corpus of charters and names and the innovative technology behind the People of Medieval Scotland prosopographical database, which made use of over 6000 individual documents from the period.
abstract:
The years between the deaths of King Mael Coluim and Queen Margaret in 1093 and King Alexander III in 1286 witnessed the formation of a kingdom resembling the Scotland we know today, which was a full member of the European club of monarchies; the period is also marked by an explosion in the production of documents.
This volume includes a range of new studies casting fresh light on the institutions and people of the Scottish kingdom, especially in the thirteenth century. New perspectives are offered on topics as diverse as the limited reach of Scottish royal administration and justice, the ties that bound the unfree to their lords, the extent of a political community in the time of King Alexander II, a view of Europeanization from the spread of a common material culture, the role of a major Cistercian monastery in the kingdom and the broader world, and the idea of the neighbourhood in Scots law. There are also chapters on the corpus of charters and names and the innovative technology behind the People of Medieval Scotland prosopographical database, which made use of over 6000 individual documents from the period.

Contributions to journals

Hammond, Matthew, “The bishop, the prior, and the founding of the burgh of St Andrews”, Innes Review 66:1 (May, 2015): 72–101.  
abstract:
The intertwined relationship between the foundation of the burgh of St Andrews by Robert, bishop of St Andrews (d.1159), and the establishment of the Augustinian cathedral priory (St Andrews Day 1140) has not hitherto been explored. Building on the work of A. A. M. Duncan, it is argued here that the burgh was set up in response to the establishment of the new priory and the ambitious programme pursued by its first prior, Robert (1140–60). The burgh's early history was bound up in the contentious relationship of bishop and prior, as Prior Robert sought to gain sole control over the cathedral and the altar of the apostle Saint Andrew, the parish church, ecclesiastical lands in east Fife, and their revenues. The burgh allowed Bishop Robert to recoup some of his financial losses, but the priory's commercial ambitions presented competition for the bishop's burgesses in the burgh's first generation.
(source: Publisher)
abstract:
The intertwined relationship between the foundation of the burgh of St Andrews by Robert, bishop of St Andrews (d.1159), and the establishment of the Augustinian cathedral priory (St Andrews Day 1140) has not hitherto been explored. Building on the work of A. A. M. Duncan, it is argued here that the burgh was set up in response to the establishment of the new priory and the ambitious programme pursued by its first prior, Robert (1140–60). The burgh's early history was bound up in the contentious relationship of bishop and prior, as Prior Robert sought to gain sole control over the cathedral and the altar of the apostle Saint Andrew, the parish church, ecclesiastical lands in east Fife, and their revenues. The burgh allowed Bishop Robert to recoup some of his financial losses, but the priory's commercial ambitions presented competition for the bishop's burgesses in the burgh's first generation.
(source: Publisher)

Contributions to edited collections or authored works

Hammond, Matthew, “The development of Mac surnames in the Gaelic world”, in: Hammond, Matthew (ed.), Personal names and naming practices in medieval Scotland, Studies in Celtic History, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2019. 100–143.
Hammond, Matthew, “Introduction: the study of personal names in medieval Scotland”, in: Hammond, Matthew (ed.), Personal names and naming practices in medieval Scotland, Studies in Celtic History, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer, 2019. 1–17.
Hammond, Matthew, “Introduction: The paradox of medieval Scotland, 1093–1286”, in: Hammond, Matthew (ed.), New perspectives on medieval Scotland, 1093–1286, Studies in Celtic History32, Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2013. 1–52.  
abstract:
It is not the least of the paradoxes in the history of the British Isles that it was in the kingdom of the Scots – the very area in which the English kingship did not directly impose its military and political power and in which English settlers and institutions were absorbed comfortably into the existing society and polity – that the English language and with it English culture arguably made its greatest and most enduring advances in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.It was this quotation from Rees Davies's masterful The First English Empire: Power and Identities in the British Isles 1093–1343 (2000) that first gave voice to the notion of the ‘paradox of medieval Scotland’, a notion which we took as the title of the project that led to this book. Davies was concerned with showing that an expansive socio-cultural and linguistic ‘Anglicisation’ was harnessed by the Anglo-Norman and Angevin kings to establish a ‘first English empire’ across Britain and Ireland in the central middle ages. Tempered by a hard-edged ethnic worldview which cast the Celtic-speaking peoples of Wales, Ireland, and Scotland as backward and uncivilised, this expansion was ultimately the victim of its own paradox, resulting in an incomplete conquest and fourteenth-century ‘ebb tide’ which left behind messy bifurcated societies in Wales and Ireland and lingering ethnic prejudice everywhere. Davies described this process of Anglicisation as the British Isles's experience of the much wider phenomenon of Europeanisation, which Robert Bartlett had recently outlined.
(source: CUP)
abstract:
It is not the least of the paradoxes in the history of the British Isles that it was in the kingdom of the Scots – the very area in which the English kingship did not directly impose its military and political power and in which English settlers and institutions were absorbed comfortably into the existing society and polity – that the English language and with it English culture arguably made its greatest and most enduring advances in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.It was this quotation from Rees Davies's masterful The First English Empire: Power and Identities in the British Isles 1093–1343 (2000) that first gave voice to the notion of the ‘paradox of medieval Scotland’, a notion which we took as the title of the project that led to this book. Davies was concerned with showing that an expansive socio-cultural and linguistic ‘Anglicisation’ was harnessed by the Anglo-Norman and Angevin kings to establish a ‘first English empire’ across Britain and Ireland in the central middle ages. Tempered by a hard-edged ethnic worldview which cast the Celtic-speaking peoples of Wales, Ireland, and Scotland as backward and uncivilised, this expansion was ultimately the victim of its own paradox, resulting in an incomplete conquest and fourteenth-century ‘ebb tide’ which left behind messy bifurcated societies in Wales and Ireland and lingering ethnic prejudice everywhere. Davies described this process of Anglicisation as the British Isles's experience of the much wider phenomenon of Europeanisation, which Robert Bartlett had recently outlined.
(source: CUP)