Bibliography

Nike
Stam
s. xx / s. xxi

14 publications between 2009 and 2021 indexed
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Theses

Stam, Nike, “A typology of code-switching in the Commentary to the Félire Óengusso”, Utrecht, PhD dissertation: LOT, 2017.  
abstract:
Is modern-day spoken bilingualism any different from historical written bilingualism? Do the same rules and theories apply? When medieval Irish scribes used Latin and Irish in one sentence, what does this tell us about their proficiency, their education, and their audience? In short, what can medieval Irish bilingualism tell us about the society that fostered it? These are the questions that this thesis attempts to answer through the analyses of the bilingual commentary text that is found together with the ninth-century Irish martyrology Félire Óengusso. It provides a diplomatic edition of the bilingual glosses in manuscript Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson B505 and discusses the potential function of the Commentary and its origin. This is followed by a grammatical analysis of any code-switches into Irish or Latin that occur according to Pieter Muysken’s typology of code-switching. From this analysis, it becomes clear that code-switching patterns seem to have been influenced by the typological distance between Irish and Latin but also by chronological developments and societal norms regarding language use. From an additional functional analysis, it appears that code-switching in medieval Irish texts may be both a functional communicative device and an unconscious expression of bilingual identity.
LOT – PDF: <link>
abstract:
Is modern-day spoken bilingualism any different from historical written bilingualism? Do the same rules and theories apply? When medieval Irish scribes used Latin and Irish in one sentence, what does this tell us about their proficiency, their education, and their audience? In short, what can medieval Irish bilingualism tell us about the society that fostered it? These are the questions that this thesis attempts to answer through the analyses of the bilingual commentary text that is found together with the ninth-century Irish martyrology Félire Óengusso. It provides a diplomatic edition of the bilingual glosses in manuscript Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson B505 and discusses the potential function of the Commentary and its origin. This is followed by a grammatical analysis of any code-switches into Irish or Latin that occur according to Pieter Muysken’s typology of code-switching. From this analysis, it becomes clear that code-switching patterns seem to have been influenced by the typological distance between Irish and Latin but also by chronological developments and societal norms regarding language use. From an additional functional analysis, it appears that code-switching in medieval Irish texts may be both a functional communicative device and an unconscious expression of bilingual identity.
Stam, Nike, “Aided Chúanach mac Cailchíne. Aggressive tribes and agressive trees: a critical edition”, Utrecht, Unpublished MA thesis: Utrecht University, 2010.
Igitur – PDF: <link>


Contributions to journals

Stam, Nike, “Between innovation and tradition: code-switching in the transmission of the Commentary to the Félire Óengusso”, Medieval Worlds: Comparative & Interdisciplinary Studies 13 (2021): 120–146.  
abstract:

This article presents a case study that explores the issue of code-switching in medieval text transmission with initial data mined in a three-year project run at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. The case study is based on a bilingual corpus of glosses and notes in Irish and Latin that accompanies the ninth-century Martyrology of Óengus. This collection of material is referred to as the Commentary to the Félire Óengusso and is found in ten manuscripts. This provides an excellent opportunity to compare different versions of a bilingual text in order to analyse the way in which different scribes dealt with the bilingual material that they copied. In my analysis, a twofold approach to the material will be adopted: first, from the perspective of linguistics, I examine whether the grammatical characteristics of a code-switch influence its transmission. For this, I use Pieter Muysken’s typology of code-mixing (2000) to distinguish between complex and simple code-switches. Secondly, from the perspective of palaeography, I examine whether highly abbreviated words that could be interpreted as either Latin or Irish (visual diamorphs) may cause so-called »triggered« code-switches in transmission. The aim of the comparison is to provide a window on scribal practice in bilingual texts.

abstract:

This article presents a case study that explores the issue of code-switching in medieval text transmission with initial data mined in a three-year project run at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. The case study is based on a bilingual corpus of glosses and notes in Irish and Latin that accompanies the ninth-century Martyrology of Óengus. This collection of material is referred to as the Commentary to the Félire Óengusso and is found in ten manuscripts. This provides an excellent opportunity to compare different versions of a bilingual text in order to analyse the way in which different scribes dealt with the bilingual material that they copied. In my analysis, a twofold approach to the material will be adopted: first, from the perspective of linguistics, I examine whether the grammatical characteristics of a code-switch influence its transmission. For this, I use Pieter Muysken’s typology of code-mixing (2000) to distinguish between complex and simple code-switches. Secondly, from the perspective of palaeography, I examine whether highly abbreviated words that could be interpreted as either Latin or Irish (visual diamorphs) may cause so-called »triggered« code-switches in transmission. The aim of the comparison is to provide a window on scribal practice in bilingual texts.

Nike Stam, “Authorities and adaptations [Review of: Elizabeth Boyle (ed.) • Deborah Hayden (ed.), Authorities and adaptations: the reworking and transmission of textual sources in medieval Ireland (2014)]”, in: Kelten: Mededelingen van de Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies 67 (2015): 17.
Nike Stam, “Ierse idiomen en Latijnse lingo – het vervolg”, in: Kelten: Mededelingen van de Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies 66 (2015): 18.
Stam, Nike, “Meertalige middeleeuwen – taalwisselingen in de marges”, Madoc: Tijdschrift over de Middeleeuwen 29:3 (2015): 139–147.
Nike Stam, “Alex Hijmans: ‘Het Iers heeft zich aan zijn stoffige imago ontworsteld’ (Interview)”, in: Kelten: Mededelingen van de Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies 53 (2012): 17.
Nike Stam, “Hoe Vadertje Tijd te omzeilen: achtste-eeuwse poëzie in een tiende-eeuwse tekst in een zestiende-eeuws manuscript”, in: Kelten: Mededelingen van de Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies 48 (2010): 2–4.
Nike Stam, “Keltisch Colloquium 2010: 20e editie”, in: Kelten: Mededelingen van de Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies 47 (2010): 15–16.
Nike Stam, “Seachtain na Gaeilge san Ísiltír (2-6 maart)”, in: kelten:Mededelingen van de Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies 42 (2009): 14.

Contributions to edited collections or authored works

Horst, Tom ter, and Nike Stam, “Visual diamorphs: the importance of language neutrality in code-switching from medieval Ireland”, in: Pahta, Päivi, Janne Skaffari, and Laura Wright (eds), Multilingual practices in language history: English and beyond, Language Contact and Bilingualism 15, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 2018. 223–242.
Stam, Nike, “Strategy or accident: code-switching in the commentary to the Félire Óengusso”, in: Ó Flaithearta, Mícheál, and Lars B. Nooij [ass. ed.] (eds), Code-switching in medieval Ireland and England: proceedings of a workshop on code-switching in the medieval classroom, Utrecht 29th May, 2015, Münchener Forschungen zur historischen Sprachwissenschaft 18, Bremen: Hempen Verlag, 2018. 71–94.